Identification of Distinct Clinical Phenotypes in Mechanically Ventilated Patients With Acute Brain Dysfunction Using Cluster Analysis
Acute brain dysfunction (ABD) is a frequent and severe syndrome occurring in critically ill patients and early identification of high-risk patients is paramount. In the present analysis, we propose a clinically applicable model for early phenotype identification of ABD at the bedside in mechanically ventilated patients, improving the recognition of patients with prolonged ABD.Prospective cohort with 629 mechanically ventilated patients in two medical-surgical intensive care units at academic centers. We applied cluster analysis to identify phenotypes using clinical and biological data. We then tested the association of phenotypes and its respective clinical outcomes. We performed a validation on a new cohort of patients select on subsequent patients admitted to the participants intensive care units.A model with 3 phenotypes best described the study population. A 4-variable model including medical admission, sepsis diagnosis, simplified acute physiologic score II and basal serum C-reactive protein (CRP) accurately classified each phenotype (area under curve 0.82; 95% CI, 0.79-0.86). Phenotype A had the shorter duration of ABD (median, 1 day), while phenotypes B and C had progressively longer duration of ABD (median, 3 and 6 days, respectively; P < .0001). There was an association between the duration of ABD and the baseline CRP levels and simplified acute physiology score II score (sensitivity and specificity of 80%). To increase the sensitivity of the model, we added CRP kinetics. By day 1, a CRP < 1.0 times the initial level was associated with a shorter duration of ABD (specificity 0.98).A model based on widely available clinical variables could provide phenotypes associated with the duration of ABD. Phenotypes with longer duration of ABD (phenotypes B and C) are characterized by more severe inflammation and by significantly worse clinical outcomes.